How Solar Electricity Works:
Solar panels collect heat energy from the sun. We call this heat solar thermal energy. A simple example of a solar panel is a closed box with a top made of a transparent material such as glass or plastic.
The sun shines through the glass and heats up the inside of the box. This is the same type of heating that happens to the inside of a car when it sits in the sun. In some cases the inside of the box is painted black so that it absorbs more heat. The heat that is collected inside the box can then be used for several purposes. The most common uses for solar panels is to heat air or water.
The terms "Solar Panel" and "Photovoltaic Panel" describe two different devices. We use the terms as follows:
How Solar Electricity or Photovoltaics (PV) Works:
A typical silicon PV cell is composed of a thin wafer consisting of an ultra-thin layer of phosphorus-doped (N-type) silicon on top of a thicker layer of boron-doped (P-type) silicon. An electrical field is created near the top surface of the cell where these two materials are in contact, called the P-N junction. When sunlight strikes the surface of a PV cell, this electrical field provides momentum and direction to light-stimulated electrons, resulting in a flow of current when the solar cell is connected to an electrical load.
Regardless of size, a typical silicon PV cell produces about 0.5 - 0.6 volt DC under open-circuit, no-load conditions. The current (and power) output of a PV cell depends on its efficiency and size (surface area), and is proportional to the intensity of sunlight striking the surface of the cell. For example, under peak sunlight conditions a typical commercial PV cell with a surface area of 160 cm2 (~25 in2) will produce about 2 watts peak power. If the sunlight intensity were 40 percent of peak, this cell would produce about 0.8 watts.